Landlords Smoke Alarm Regulations Scotland: Essential Compliance Guide

A Scottish landlord looking at a guide to smoke alarms
by SIA Site Admin // July 12

In recent years, fire safety has become an increasingly important concern for landlords and tenants in Scotland. Following the tragic Grenfell fire in London in 2017, the Scottish government has taken steps to improve fire safety in homes across the country. One such measure is the introduction of new regulations for smoke alarms in privately rented properties.

These regulations, which came into force on 1 February 2022, have amended the existing statutory tolerable standard under section 86 of the Housing (Scotland) Act 1987. The new legislation requires all houses, regardless of their tenure, to have satisfactory provision for detecting fires and giving warnings in the event of fire or suspected fire. The law mandates the installation of interlinked smoke alarms in every home in Scotland, meaning that if one alarm goes off, all the connected alarms will also go off, providing an early warning system throughout the entire property.

For private landlords, ensuring their rented properties meet these new standards is crucial, both for the safety of their tenants and for compliance with the law. The requirements include installing a smoke alarm in the most frequently used room, a smoke alarm in every circulation space on each storey, and a heat alarm in the kitchen. All alarms must be ceiling-mounted and interlinked to provide a comprehensive warning system in case of an emergency.

Smoke Alarm Regulations in Scotland

Legal Framework

In Scotland, the smoke alarm regulations have been amended by the Housing (Scotland) Act 1987, specifically under section 86. These changes came into force on 1st February 2022, making it a legal requirement for all homes to have satisfactory provisions in place for detecting fires and giving warnings in case of fire or suspected fire.


As part of the updated regulations, it is mandatory for every home to have:

  • One smoke alarm in the living room or the room you use most
  • One smoke alarm in every hallway and landing
  • One heat alarm in the kitchen

All smoke alarms and heat alarms must be mounted on the ceiling and interlinked. This means that if one alarm goes off, all others will also be triggered, providing a comprehensive warning system throughout the home.


In addition to the basic requirements, there are some additional considerations for specific situations, such as homes with carbon-fuelled appliances like boilers, fires, heaters, or flues. In these cases, a carbon monoxide detector is also required.

Social landlords in Scotland have also been working proactively to ensure that the new smoke and heat alarm regulations are being implemented in their properties, contributing to a safer and more secure living environment for all residents.

Carbon Monoxide Alarm Regulations

Legal Background

The Scottish government has implemented regulations to ensure the safety of tenants in private rented properties. These regulations have been updated by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2006 (Modification of the Repairing Standard) Regulations 2019 and the Housing (Scotland) Act 1987 (Tolerable Standard) (Extension of Criteria) Order 2019, as amended. These changes have made the installation of carbon monoxide alarms mandatory in properties with carbon-fuelled appliances.


According to the updated legislation, landlords must install a carbon monoxide alarm in any room containing a carbon-fuelled appliance, such as boilers, fires, heaters, or flues. This is to protect tenants against the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. It is essential to note that carbon monoxide detectors do not need to be interlinked with fire alarms.


When landlords are installing carbon monoxide alarms, they must ensure that the alarms meet the relevant British Standards. According to the guidance, the alarms should be compliant with BS EN 50291. Additionally, it is crucial to position the alarms correctly, following the manufacturer’s recommendations, to ensure they function effectively. Regular inspections and maintenance should also be conducted to make sure the alarms remain in good working order.

Interlinked and Specialist Alarm Systems

Interlinked Systems

Interlinked fire alarms are essential in Scottish homes, as they ensure that if one alarm goes off, they all go off, providing better protection and early warning in case of a fire. The law in Scotland changed on 1 February 2022, requiring every home to have interlinked fire alarms. These systems are essential for improving fire safety in Scottish homes, allowing residents to be quickly alerted wherever they may be in the house.

For best practices, smoke and heat alarms should be mounted on the ceiling and interlinked for optimal coverage. In addition, private landlords are required to have these interlinked fire alarms in their properties to comply with the Housing (Scotland) Act 2006.

Specialist Systems

In addition to the interlinked alarms, properties with specific needs may require specialist systems, such as those meeting the BS 5446-2 standard. These specialist alarms are designed for people who are deaf or hard of hearing, offering alternative alert methods such as visual indicators or vibrating devices to ensure all occupants are aware of potential dangers.

All properties with carbon-fuelled appliances like boilers, fires, heaters, or flues must also have a carbon monoxide detector. However, this does not need to be linked to the interlinked fire alarms. Installing the appropriate specialist alarms can significantly improve fire safety for everyone occupying the property.

Careful consideration of both the interlinked and specialist alarm systems ensures that all residents are alerted to potential fire hazards, maintaining a safer environment in Scottish homes.

Roles and Responsibilities of Landlords and Tenants

In Scotland, landlords and tenants have specific obligations regarding smoke alarm regulations to ensure safety within rented properties. This section outlines the responsibilities of both parties concerning smoke alarms.

Landlord Obligations

Landlords, both private and social, have a duty to comply with the Repairing Standard, which includes ensuring the proper installation and maintenance of smoke alarms. Some of the key obligations are:

  • Installing a smoke alarm in the living room and every circulation space on each storey, such as hallways and landings
  • Ensuring each smoke alarm is interlinked, so they all activate when one detects smoke
  • Installing a heat detector in every kitchen
  • Fitting a carbon monoxide detector in every space containing a carbon-fuelled appliance
  • Regularly maintaining and replacing alarms as required, in accordance with manufacturer guidelines
  • Ensuring all alarms are operational at the start of each new tenancy

Tenant Obligations

Tenants also have a role in maintaining the safety of their homes. Tenant responsibilities include:

  • Regularly testing smoke alarms, ensuring they are working correctly
  • Promptly notifying the landlord if an alarm malfunctions or needs replacing
  • Avoiding any actions that may interfere with or damage the alarm system
  • Following the landlord’s guidance on proper usage and maintenance of alarms

By understanding and fulfilling these roles and responsibilities, both landlords and tenants contribute to fire safety in rented properties across Scotland.

Installation and Maintenance

Responsible Parties

It is the responsibility of landlords in Scotland to ensure that smoke alarms are properly installed and maintained in their rented properties. Landlords should consult with a qualified electrician to ensure that alarms are correctly installed and meet the requirements of the current regulations.

Tenants should also be aware of their responsibilities regarding testing and reporting any issues with the alarms, such as low battery warnings or malfunctioning alarms, to their landlords.

Alarm Types and Considerations

Scotland’s fire safety regulations require specific types of alarms to be installed in various areas of the home. These include:

  • Smoke alarms: One alarm should be installed in the living room or the room that is used most frequently. Additionally, smoke alarms are required in every hallway and landing.
  • Heat alarms: One heat alarm must be installed in the kitchen.

All alarms should be interlinked, so that if one alarm is triggered, they all sound simultaneously. There are two types of alarms that can be used to comply with these regulations:

  • Mains-wired alarms: These alarms are connected to the property’s electrical system and require installation by a qualified electrician. They can be more reliable, as they’re not reliant on battery power.
  • Sealed battery alarms: These alarms are powered by tamper-proof, long-life lithium batteries, which can last up to 10 years. They do not need to be connected to the mains power and are a suitable alternative if mains-wired alarms are not feasible.

Both mains-wired and sealed battery alarms should be ceiling mounted for optimal performance. It is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for installation, as improper placement can reduce the effectiveness of the alarms.

Considerations for maintenance

Landlords are responsible for making sure the alarms are in good working order and ensuring maintenance is carried out as necessary. This includes:

  • Regularly testing the alarms to ensure they are functioning correctly.
  • Replacing batteries for non-sealed battery alarms as needed or when they reach the end of their life.
  • Conducting any necessary repairs or replacements if an alarm is found to be malfunctioning.

In conclusion, it is crucial for landlords in Scotland to be aware of and adhere to the current smoke and heat alarm regulations. By ensuring proper installation, regularly testing and maintaining the alarms, landlords can help provide a safe living environment for their tenants.

Enforcement and Compliance

Regulatory Bodies

The enforcement of smoke alarm regulations in Scotland falls under the responsibility of local authorities. These authorities are tasked with ensuring that landlords comply with the Housing (Scotland) Act 2006 and its provisions for fire detection in private rented properties. They are also in charge of providing landlords with guidance and support in meeting the necessary standards.

Penalties for Non-compliance

Landlords who fail to comply with the smoke alarm regulations in Scotland may face penalties imposed by their local authority. These penalties can include:

  • Notices to comply: If a landlord is found to be non-compliant, the local authority may issue a notice requiring them to install the necessary alarms within a specified timeframe.
  • Rent penalty notices: Local authorities may also issue rent penalty notices to landlords who fail to comply with smoke alarm regulations. This means that the landlord will not be allowed to collect rent during the period of non-compliance.
  • Fines: In some cases, landlords may also face fines if they do not adhere to the fire safety regulations for their rental properties. The amount of the fine can vary depending on the severity of non-compliance.

By ensuring compliance with smoke alarm regulations, landlords in Scotland not only protect their tenants but also safeguard themselves from potential penalties. It is essential for landlords to stay up to date with the latest guidance provided by the local authorities to maintain a safe and secure environment for their renters.

Additional Fire Safety Measures

Aside from the basic requirements for smoke alarms, landlords in Scotland also need to implement additional fire safety measures in their rented properties. Ensuring the safety of tenants is of utmost importance, and these measures can help reduce the risk of fire incidents.

Fire Safety Equipment

Landlords should provide their tenants with appropriate fire safety equipment. This includes installing heat alarms in high-risk areas such as kitchens. Heat alarms are designed to detect rapid temperature increases that may indicate a fire.

Additionally, landlords must ensure that there are carbon monoxide alarms in rooms with solid fuel burning appliances, such as coal fires or wood-burning stoves. These alarms can detect dangerous levels of carbon monoxide gas, which is a potential threat to tenants’ health and safety.

It’s also essential for landlords to provide suitable fire extinguishers or fire blankets, especially in common areas of a building where fire hazards may exist, such as communal kitchens or storage rooms.

Home Fire Safety Visits

The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS) offers free Home Fire Safety Visits to help landlords and residents implement proper fire safety measures. During these visits, an SFRS representative will assess the property for potential fire hazards, provide advice on fire safety practices, and ensure that the necessary fire detection equipment is in place.

Home Fire Safety Visits are not only useful for landlords but can also benefit tenants who may not be familiar with fire safety best practices. These visits can help create a safer environment by promoting awareness and education for both parties.

In conclusion, implementing additional fire safety measures in rented properties is crucial for landlords in Scotland. This includes providing the necessary fire safety equipment and considering Home Fire Safety Visits to raise awareness and ensure the well-being of tenants.

Relevant Legislation and Building Regulations

The Housing (Scotland) Act 1987 introduced the statutory tolerable standard, a set of requirements for a property to be considered fit for human habitation. This legislation was further amended by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2006, and more recently, the Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Alarm (Amendment) Regulations 2022. These changes aim to improve fire safety in all homes, regardless of tenure.

An essential aspect of the tolerable standard is the satisfactory provision for detecting fires and for giving-warning in the event of fire or suspected fire. As of 1 February 2022, under Section 86 of the Housing (Scotland) Act 1987, all homes need to have interlinked fire alarms installed. This means that if one alarm goes off, all the alarms in the property will be triggered, alerting occupants more effectively.

In terms of fire alarm installation, the law now requires that there must be at least one smoke alarm in the most frequently used room, one in every circulation space on each storey, and a heat alarm in the kitchen. All these alarms must be ceiling-mounted and interlinked, as specified by the Scottish Government’s guidelines.

Landlords should also be aware of the building regulations that may apply when carrying out work on their properties, such as installing new fire alarms or making significant alterations. In these cases, obtaining a building warrant may be necessary to ensure that the work complies with the relevant building regulations.

In conclusion, landlords in Scotland must adhere to the regulations set forth in the Housing (Scotland) Act 1987, the Housing (Scotland) Act 2006, and the Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Alarm (Amendment) Regulations 2022 to provide safe living conditions for their tenants. Understanding these legal requirements and maintaining properties according to the statutory tolerable standard will enable landlords to avoid potential penalties and ensure the well-being of their tenants.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the requirements for smoke alarms in Scottish rental properties?

In Scotland, rental properties must have satisfactory provision for detecting fires and giving warning. This typically includes one smoke alarm in the room you spend the most time in, usually the living room, one smoke alarm in every circulation space on each storey (e.g., hallways and landings), and one heat alarm in the kitchen. All smoke and heat alarms should be mounted on the ceiling and be interlinked.

What is the tolerable standard for fire detection in Scotland?

The tolerable standard, as per the Housing (Scotland) Act 2006, requires adequate fire detection and warning systems in place to ensure occupants’ safety. This usually entails having interlinked smoke and heat alarms installed throughout the property.

Do landlords need to provide interlinked smoke and heat alarms?

Yes, landlords in Scotland must provide interlinked smoke and heat alarms in their rental properties. These alarms are designed to alert occupants more quickly in the event of a fire, improving safety and increasing the chances of a successful evacuation.

Who is eligible for free smoke alarms in Scotland?

Residents can request a free home fire safety visit from the Scottish Fire & Rescue Service. During the visit, firefighters will assess the home’s fire safety and may install free smoke alarms if they are deemed necessary.

What are HMO fire regulations in Scotland?

Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMO) must follow more stringent fire safety regulations, including additional fire detection equipment, fire doors, emergency lighting, and escape routes. Landlords with HMO properties should consult the local council and check the specific requirements for HMO fire safety in Scotland.

What’s included in a landlord’s checklist for property safety in Scotland?

A landlord’s checklist for property safety in Scotland typically includes ensuring adequate fire detection and warning systems, providing carbon monoxide alarms in rooms with solid fuel-burning appliances, and making sure all furniture is fire safe. Additionally, landlords should regularly inspect and maintain their properties to address any potential hazards and keep tenants safe.