New Fire Safety Standards Scotland: Key Updates and Compliance Tips

A Scottish home fitted with smoke alarms according to new fire safety standards
by SIA Site Admin // July 12

The introduction of new fire safety standards in Scotland aims to significantly reduce the risk of fires in residential properties and ensure a higher level of protection for residents. Following a public consultation that took place from 16th July to 11th October 2021, the Scottish Government announced the implementation of these vital safety measures. One key aspect of these new regulations is the mandatory installation of smoke alarms in specific areas of homes, such as living rooms, hallways, and landings.

In addition to smoke alarms, the new standards require a heat alarm to be installed in every kitchen. These alarms must be ceiling mounted and interlinked, providing a comprehensive safety network throughout the home. The Scottish Government has provided funding to the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service to assist in the installation of smoke and heat alarms for those households assessed as high risk from fire.

These updated fire safety standards come into effect in February 2022, reflecting the Scottish Government’s commitment to enhancing domestic fire safety and minimising the devastating consequences of fires in homes. With these regulations in place, residents across Scotland can feel more confident in the safety of their homes and the effectiveness of preventative measures in the event of a fire.

New Fire Safety Standards in Scotland

The Scottish government has introduced new fire safety standards for domestic buildings in Scotland, aiming to improve the overall safety of residents. The updated regulations focus on the installation of heat and smoke alarms, as well as enhanced fire protection in building structures.

In response to various fire incidents worldwide, the Building Scotland (Amendment) Regulations 2022 were implemented. These regulations include a ban on the use of combustible materials in external wall cladding systems for buildings with a storey at a height of 11 metres or more, ensuring increased fire safety.

A building warrant is required for all new constructions, alterations, and extensions, ensuring strict adherence to fire safety guidelines. These guidelines apply to all domestic properties in Scotland, regardless of their tenure. Landlords should already be complying with these standards in the Private Rented Sector (PRS).

As part of the new fire safety standards, all homes should be equipped with:

  • Smoke alarms in living rooms and circulation spaces, such as hallways and landings.
  • Heat alarms in kitchens.
  • Carbon monoxide alarms in areas where fuel-burning appliances are located.

These alarms should be interlinked, enabling the simultaneous activation of all devices in case of a fire to allow for immediate notification and action.

Collaborating closely with the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS), the government promotes free home fire safety visits aimed at helping the most vulnerable households mitigate fire risks and install suitable fire protection equipment.

In addition, the Building standards technical handbook 2020: domestic addresses fire safety engineering principles, providing guidance for creating an adequate fire safety strategy while complying with the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005.

The new fire safety standards in Scotland signify the government’s commitment to strengthening fire protection measures in domestic buildings, fostering a safer environment for residents across the country.

Ministerial Working Group and Grenfell Tower

In response to the tragic Grenfell Tower fire in 2017, the Scottish Government established the Ministerial Working Group on Building and Fire Safety. This group was set up to oversee the review of building and fire safety frameworks, regulations, and guidance in Scotland, ensuring the safety of people residing in the country’s buildings. The initial focus of the group was on high-rise domestic buildings.

The Building Scotland (Amendment) Regulations 2022 came into effect on 1st June 2022. These regulations introduced amendments to fire safety standards which were a direct result of the work carried out by the Ministerial Working Group, which had been continuously active since the Grenfell Tower incident. The group has implemented a range of measures to enhance fire safety across various types of buildings in Scotland, including specialised housing.

The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS) has also made numerous changes to firefighting in Scotland since the Grenfell Tower fire. These changes consider various aspects including refurbishments, roles and responsibilities, building control, fire risk assessments, housing issues, and local authority involvement.

One key aspect that the group has focused on is the cladding used on buildings. In light of Grenfell Tower, they set up the Building Standards Fire Safety Review Panel 2021 to explore the possibility of banning high-risk cladding products and analyse the role of large-scale fire testing for facades. These efforts aim to enhance the overall fire safety standards in Scotland and prevent tragedies like Grenfell Tower from happening again.

Smoke, Heat and Carbon Monoxide Alarms

Alarm Types

There are three main types of alarms that are crucial for ensuring fire safety in homes:

  • Smoke alarms detect the presence of smoke, often caused by fires, and alert occupants of potential danger.
  • Heat alarms trigger a warning when they sense a rapid rise in temperature or a high-temperature threshold, typically suitable for kitchens where smoke alarms could produce false alerts.
  • Carbon monoxide alarms monitor the air for the presence of carbon monoxide, a dangerous gas that could result from faulty fuel-burning appliances or blocked flues.

It is vital to install these alarms in appropriate locations and ensure they are interconnected to provide an effective early warning system for residents.

Requirements in Scotland

Scotland has introduced new fire safety standards for all homes following the tragic Grenfell fire in London in 2017. These regulations stipulate that:

  • Interlinked smoke alarms must be fitted in living rooms, lounges, and circulation spaces like hallways and landings.
  • A heat alarm should be installed in the kitchen.
  • All alarms must be ceiling-mounted and interconnected, meaning if one alarm triggers, all other alarms in the house will also sound.

In addition, if a home has any carbon-fuelled appliances, such as boilers, fires, or non-electric heaters, it must also be equipped with a carbon monoxide detector.

These new regulations aim to significantly reduce fire-related casualties and increase the overall safety of Scottish homes.

Building Regulations and Technical Handbooks

Domestic Buildings

The Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004 sets out the standards for fire safety in domestic buildings. To assist in achieving these standards, the Scottish Government provides the Building Standards Technical Handbook, which has been updated for 2022. The 2022 Domestic Technical Handbook contains detailed guidance on fire safety for various aspects of domestic buildings, such as materials, escape routes, and alarms.

The handbook provides functional standards that focus on fire safety performance and place emphasis on the contributions of materials and building elements to minimise fire spread. The guidance also plays a vital role in the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service’s (SFRS) approach to enforcing and promoting fire safety.

Non-Domestic Buildings

In addition to domestic buildings, the Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004 also covers fire safety standards in non-domestic buildings. To aid compliance with these regulations, the Scottish Government offers the 2022 Non-Domestic Technical Handbook, which applies to building warrant submissions made on or after 1 June 2022.

This document encompasses guidance on fire safety measures in non-domestic structures, such as fire resistance, compartmentation, and escape routes. As with the domestic counterpart, the non-domestic guide offers functional standards that focus on fire safety performance and inform the interventions of the SFRS.

By complying with the guidance offered by the Scottish Building Standards Technical Handbooks and adhering to the Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004, builders, designers, and property owners can contribute to enhanced fire safety in both domestic and non-domestic structures in Scotland.

Automatic Fire Suppression Systems

Automatic fire suppression systems play an essential role in limiting fire growth and preventing large-scale damage. In light of increasing concerns about fire safety, Scotland has seen a push to implement more stringent regulations, ensuring that these systems are effectively incorporated into new building projects.

The Building Standards Technical Handbook provides guidance on achieving compliance with the Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004. It specifies that in the event of a fire outbreak, a building’s design and construction must inhibit fire growth through the operation of an automatic fire suppression system.

In particular, this standard applies to enclosed shopping centres and residential care buildings, where the risks to occupants may be higher. Automatic fire suppression systems, such as sprinklers, can provide significant benefits in rooms with fast fire growth, since they can activate during the early stages of fire development, controlling its spread and minimising damage.

Following the tragic Grenfell Tower fire in London in 2017, the Ministerial Working Group on Building and Fire Safety was formed, with a focus on improving fire safety standards across Scotland. As a result, legislation requiring new-build social housing to be fitted with automatic fire suppression systems has been initiated, signalling a step forward in fire safety for new flats and social homes.

In summary, Scotland’s new fire safety standards emphasise the importance of automatic fire suppression systems in both residential and commercial buildings. By adhering to these guidelines, developers and constructors can mitigate the risk of large-scale fire incidents and provide a safer living and working environment for occupants.

Home Fire Safety in New Builds and Existing Properties

New Builds

In Scotland, the introduction of new fire safety standards has led to significant improvements in fire protection for both new builds and existing properties. The Building Scotland (Amendment) Regulations 2022 came into force on 1 June 2022, amending existing regulations and standards on fire safety. These changes include:

  • Enhanced requirements for external wall systems
  • Updates to Section 0 (general), Section 2 (fire) and Appendix A of the regulations

Additionally, the Ministerial Working Group on Building and Fire Safety has been working on providing greater provision of automatic fire suppression systems, to make new homes as safe as possible for residents.

Home Owners

For existing properties, the Scottish government is introducing new standards for heat and smoke alarms from February 2022. Home owners must ensure their properties have:

  • A smoke alarm in the living room and in circulation spaces such as hallways and landings
  • A heat alarm in the kitchen
  • A minimum of grade D1 of fire and carbon monoxide alarms in accordance with BS EN standards

These measures are designed to help reduce the risk of fires and increase the safety of both home owners and tenants.

Private Rented Properties and Landlords

In Scotland, new fire safety standards have been implemented for all homes, including private rented properties. Landlords must ensure their properties comply with these updated regulations to provide a safer living environment for their tenants. The standards aim to reduce the risk of fires in dwellings and offer consistent safety measures across both privately rented and owner-occupied homes.

A crucial aspect of the new standards is the installation of smoke alarms on each floor and a carbon monoxide alarm in any room with a solid fuel-burning appliance, such as a coal fire or wood-burning stove. Landlords must use either sealed battery alarms or mains-wired alarms to meet the requirements. Furniture provided by landlords should also comply with fire safety regulations.

These updated fire safety guidelines replace earlier policies, effective from 1 February 2022. Landlords are responsible for ensuring their properties meet the new standards. However, tenants should also be aware of these regulations and can report any safety concerns to their landlords.

For council or housing association tenants, ongoing work is being carried out to ensure all properties comply with the new fire alarm standards. The enforcement of these safety measures is essential for the overall wellbeing of occupants in both private and social housing sectors.

In conclusion, the new fire safety standards in Scotland are designed to provide a safer living environment for all residents, regardless of property ownership. Landlords play a vital role in upholding these regulations and addressing any safety concerns raised by their tenants.

High Rise Buildings and External Wall Systems


High rise buildings in Scotland have specific fire safety requirements due to their unique challenges during evacuation. A proper escape plan is crucial to ensure the safety of occupants. Building owners and managers must provide clear signage, maintain escape routes free of obstructions, and regularly test fire alarms and emergency lighting.

In case of a fire, routes should be designed in a way that everyone reaches a fire-protected staircase or safe area within minimum time. A phased evacuation strategy can be adopted for high rise buildings in Scotland. This strategy focuses on evacuating the most affected areas first while using fire doors, fire-resistant partitions and stair enclosures to keep occupants within unaffected areas safe.

Fire Safety Measures

Fire safety measures in high rise buildings also include careful consideration of external wall systems. External wall systems can significantly impact fire safety and fire spread. Some materials can increase the risk of flame spread, necessitating strict regulations and guidance to ensure buildings are as fire-resistant as possible.

In Scotland, concerns over external wall systems led to amendments in the Building Scotland (Amendment) Regulations 2022. These regulations address the fire safety of external wall systems and ban the use of high-risk cladding materials on new buildings. Compliance with BS 8414, a large-scale fire test, is often required to assess the performance of facade systems under real-world fire conditions. Moreover, the Scottish Advice Note provides guidance on determining the fire risk posed by external wall systems on existing multi-storey residential buildings.

To enhance fire safety in high rise buildings, additional measures may include:

  • Installing and maintaining appropriate fire detection and alarm systems
  • Ensuring adequate fire resistance of building elements
  • Regular fire risk assessments to identify and mitigate potential hazards
  • Providing appropriate fire safety information, training, and instructions to building occupants

By adhering to these regulations and fire safety measures, high rise buildings in Scotland can achieve an improved level of safety for their occupants and avoid disastrous incidents in the future.

Fire Safety in Non-Residential Premises


Dutyholders are responsible for ensuring fire safety in non-residential premises in Scotland. This responsibility falls under the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005, which covers existing commercial, industrial, transport, educational, day care, and places of entertainment and assembly premises. The act does not apply to premises used for overnight sleeping accommodation, child-minding, or care homes1.

Dutyholders must ensure that they carry out a fire risk assessment, implement appropriate fire safety measures, and maintain safety records. Failure to comply with the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005 can result in penalties and legal actions.

Non-Residential Buildings

The Scottish government provides practical fire safety guidance for existing non-residential premises. These guidelines provide advice and recommendations on various fire safety aspects within non-domestic buildings, including:

  • Fire detection and warning systems: Installing appropriate systems to detect fires and provide timely warnings to occupants.

  • Emergency escape routes: Ensuring that there are enough safe and accessible routes for people to evacuate the premises quickly during an emergency.

  • Fire-fighting equipment: Providing suitable fire-fighting equipment, such as extinguishers and fire blankets, that are regularly maintained and tested.

  • Fire safety management: Implementing a robust fire safety management plan, including staff training and regular review of fire safety measures.

Business owners and managers of non-residential buildings should familiarise themselves with these guidelines to ensure they are meeting fire safety requirements and providing a safe environment for employees, visitors, and customers.

Public Consultation and Feedback

In an effort to enhance the safety of the people in and around Scotland’s buildings, the Scottish government has initiated a public consultation on the fire safety of external wall systems. This consultation aims to gather feedback from professionals, organisations, and the general public in order to determine the effectiveness of the new fire safety standards implemented in the country.

The Building Scotland (Amendment) Regulations 2022, focusing primarily on fire safety and cladding, came into effect on 1 June 2022. The amendments to the regulations, standards, and supporting guidance relating to external wall systems were published a month prior, on 6 May 2022.

As part of the public consultation, individuals and organisations are encouraged to provide feedback on the proposed amendments. The Scottish Fire & Rescue Service also encourages consultations to improve their services and adapt to the needs, experiences, and expectations of the communities they serve. Keeping communities informed and engaging them in the decision-making process is vital for their safety and overall well-being.

The initial results of the public consultation on the review of building standards related to fire safety were published on 17 January 2022. This analysis offers valuable insight into different perspectives and experiences, helping the Scottish government to refine the amendments and make improvements accordingly.

Taking part in the public consultation process is an essential way to ensure that the fire safety standards and regulations in Scotland are comprehensive, effective, and robust. By collaborating with and incorporating feedback from the public and industry experts, the Scottish government aims to create safer environments for citizens to live and work in.

Fire Safety Legislation and Responsibilities

Fire Safety Law

The Fire Safety Law in Scotland is governed by the Building (Scotland) Act 2003 and the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005. The Fire Safety (Scotland) Regulations 2006 provide further provisions for enforcement and compliance. These laws and regulations form the basis of fire safety requirements for non-domestic premises, care homes, high rise domestic buildings, and other premises with sleeping accommodation.

Fire Safety Duties

Under the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005, duty holders have a range of responsibilities to ensure fire safety. These include carrying out a fire safety risk assessment, ensuring fire detection and warning systems are in place, implementing suitable fire safety measures, and maintaining records of assessments and actions. Key responsibilities include:

  • Responsible Persons: These individuals have overall responsibility for fire safety within a specified premises, including compliance with all relevant legislation and maintaining necessary documentation.
  • Employees and Tenants: All individuals within the premises must adhere to prescribed fire safety measures, cooperate with Responsible Persons, and undertake relevant training.


Training is an essential aspect of fire safety compliance. As mentioned in the Fire safety – existing non-residential premises: practical guidance, employees and other occupants should be familiar with fire hazards and risks, as well as emergency evacuation procedures. Regular refresher training, drills, and updates will help ensure everyone continues to meet their legal obligations and maintain a safe premises.

In summary, the Fire Safety Legislation and Responsibilities in Scotland are largely governed by the Building (Scotland) Act 2003, the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005, and the Fire Safety (Scotland) Regulations 2006. With a thorough understanding of these laws and regulations, necessary fire safety risk assessments, implementation of appropriate fire safety measures, and proper training, premises in Scotland can work to effectively maintain fire safety and compliance.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the requirements for smoke and heat alarms in residential properties?

In Scotland, new fire safety standards were introduced in February 2022. According to these standards, every home must have a smoke alarm in the living room and in circulation spaces such as hallways and landings. Additionally, a heat alarm should be installed in the kitchen, and all alarms must be interlinked.

Who is eligible for free smoke alarms in Scotland?

While specific eligibility criteria may vary, local authorities and housing associations in Scotland often provide free smoke alarms and fire safety equipment to their tenants. It’s recommended to contact your local council or housing association for more information about their specific policies.

What changes were introduced in the Fire Safety Scotland Regulations 2006?

The Building Scotland (Amendment) Regulations 2022 introduced significant changes to fire safety standards and regulations. These amendments include new requirements for external wall systems, aiming to improve building safety and reduce fire risks.

How do the new fire detector laws impact Scottish homeowners?

The new laws, which took effect on 1 February 2022, require interlinked fire alarms in every home. Homeowners are responsible for ensuring their properties meet the new standards. non-compliance may result in enforcement action from the local authority.

What is the Regulatory Reform Fire Safety Order 2005 in Scotland?

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 does not directly apply to Scotland. Instead, similar fire safety regulations are governed by the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005 and the Fire Safety (Scotland) Regulations 2006. These laws aim to ensure the safety of people in and around non-domestic premises.

How many smoke alarms are needed in a Scottish home?

The number of smoke alarms required in a Scottish home depends on the size and layout of the property. At a minimum, there must be a smoke alarm in the living room and in circulation spaces such as hallways and landings. Additional alarms may be necessary for larger properties or homes with multiple stories. All alarms must be interlinked to ensure they all activate simultaneously if one detects a fire.