Upgrading Smoke Alarms Scotland: Essential Steps for Enhanced Safety

A visual guide to upgrading smoke alarms in Scotland
by SIA Site Admin // July 12

Upgrading smoke alarms has become a crucial topic in Scotland, as new regulations require all homes to have interlinked smoke and heat alarms installed. These changes in legislation aim to provide increased safety for residents and ensure that they are alerted promptly in the event of a fire. As of February 2022, this requirement applies to all Scottish homes, regardless of whether they are owner-occupied or rented properties.

Interlinked alarms ensure that when one alarm senses danger, either through smoke detection or rapidly rising temperatures, all interconnected alarms sound simultaneously. This interconnected system allows residents to be alerted quickly, no matter where they are in the home. In addition to smoke and heat alarms, the new regulations also include requirements for carbon monoxide detectors in certain circumstances. This important safety measure is designed to protect residents from the potentially fatal effects of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Adapting to these new regulations may require homeowners and landlords to make essential updates to their existing smoke alarm systems. By complying with these updated laws and investing in interconnected alarms, residents across Scotland can expect an enhanced level of safety and peace of mind when it comes to fire protection in their homes.

New Smoke Alarm Regulations

Legislation Overview

In response to the Grenfell fire incident in London in 2017, the Scottish Government introduced new smoke alarm regulations that came into effect on 1 February 2022. This legislation aims to improve fire safety in homes across Scotland, ensuring that individuals are alerted in case of fires or potential hazards, providing them with the time needed to evacuate safely.


Under the new law, all Scottish homes must have:

  • At least one smoke alarm in the most frequently used room
  • One smoke alarm in every circulation space on each storey
  • A heat alarm in each kitchen

All alarms must be ceiling mounted and interlinked, which means if one alarm goes off, all will activate, so occupants will always hear the alarm wherever they are in the house. This rule applies to owner-occupied homes and rented properties alike.

In addition to the smoke and heat alarms, carbon monoxide alarms are also required if there is a carbon-fuelled appliance, such as a boiler, heater, or fire in the building.

Why the Change in Law

The new regulations aim to provide better protection and decrease the risk of fire-related casualties in residential properties across Scotland. By making these essential safety devices mandatory and interconnected, it ensures a consistent level of fire protection for all homes in Scotland. The Scottish Government states that people won’t be penalised if they need more time to upgrade their alarms in accordance with the new law, but taking immediate action is strongly encouraged to ensure the safety of residents.

Types of Alarms

Smoke Alarms

Smoke alarms are essential devices that detect smoke and alert you in case of potential fire hazards. These alarms are usually mounted on ceilings to provide the best detection coverage, as smoke tends to rise. There are two main types of smoke alarms: ionisation and optical alarms. Ionisation alarms are more sensitive to small particles of smoke and are effective in detecting fast-flaming fires, while optical alarms are more responsive to larger smoke particles, suitable for detecting slow-burning fires. It is crucial to ensure that your smoke alarms are interlinked so that if one alarm senses danger, all alarms in the property will sound, providing optimal protection.

Heat Alarms

Heat alarms are designed to detect rapid increases in temperature, making them ideal for installation in the kitchen, where smoke alarms may often cause false alarms due to cooking activities. Just like smoke alarms, heat alarms should be mounted on the ceiling and be interlinked with other alarms in the property. This ensures that when the heat alarm detects rapidly rising temperatures, all interconnected alarms will sound, providing adequate time for occupants to take necessary action.

Carbon Monoxide Alarms

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless, tasteless, and colourless gas that can be lethal if inhaled in significant amounts. CO alarms are specifically designed to detect the presence of carbon monoxide in the air, protecting you and your family from this dangerous gas. If you have carbon-fuelled appliances such as boilers, fires, non-electric heaters or flues, you must have a carbon monoxide detector installed in your home. It is essential to follow the manufacturer’s guidelines to decide the appropriate location for the CO alarm. Although CO alarms do not need to be interlinked with other alarms, it is still highly recommended to have interconnected smoke and heat alarms in your Scottish home, in compliance with the new smoke and heat alarm laws that took effect in February 2022.

Installation and Placement

When upgrading smoke alarms in Scotland, it is important to consider the ideal locations and placement of the alarms to ensure maximum efficiency and safety. This section covers the ideal locations and placements for different room types.

Ideal Locations

In general, smoke alarms should be installed in areas with a higher risk of fire, such as near the living room and kitchen. They should also be placed in hallways and landings, connecting the rooms to provide sufficient warning in case of a fire. Keep in mind that all smoke alarms must be interlinked, so if one alarm detects smoke, they all go off, providing an audible warning throughout the house1.

Placement by Room Type

  • Living room: Install a smoke alarm on the ceiling, preferably in the centre of the room. If the room has a high ceiling, consider placing the alarm on a wall with the top of the alarm between 150mm and 300mm below the ceiling2.

  • Hallways and landings: Position smoke alarms in hallways and landings in a way that they are interconnected with the alarms in other rooms. Install them on the ceiling and ensure that they cover the entire length of the hallways and landings3.

  • Kitchen: A heat alarm, rather than a smoke alarm, should be installed in the kitchen. Place the heat alarm on the ceiling, but not directly above cookers or other heat sources. This helps prevent false alarms caused by cooking fumes4.

Ensure that all alarms are mounted on the ceiling and interlinked5. Check the manufacturer’s guidance for each alarm to know the specific placement instructions. Additionally, if your home has any carbon-fuelled appliances, install a carbon monoxide detector as well6.

Interlinked Alarm Systems

Interlinked alarm systems are now required for every home in Scotland, following the change in law effective from 1st February 2022. These systems involve interconnected smoke and heat alarms, ensuring that when one alarm is triggered, all alarms in the house sound simultaneously. This comprehensive approach to fire safety is essential in preventing fire-related incidents and saving lives.

Benefits and Advantages

Interlinked alarms offer various benefits compared to standalone alarms. Some key advantages include:

  • Increased detection: With all alarms connected, they are more likely to detect smoke or heat in different areas of the house, increasing the chances of early warning.
  • Reduced response time: As all alarms sound together, occupants can react more quickly, potentially saving lives and avoiding severe property damage.
  • Improved safety for hearing-impaired individuals: The linked system ensures alarms are heard no matter the location, providing an added layer of protection.

Wired Vs. Wireless Interlinked Alarms

Wired and wireless interlinked alarms are the two main types of interconnected alarm systems. Each has its pros and cons:

Wired interlinked alarms:

  • Reliable connection with no signal interference
  • May require professional installation
  • Suitable for new builds or renovations, where wiring can be easily integrated.

Wireless interlinked alarms:

  • Use radio frequency or Wi-Fi to connect alarms
  • Easy installation, often DIY-friendly
  • Battery-powered, with no dependence on mains power
  • May require regular battery checks and replacement.

It’s crucial to choose an interlinked smoke and fire alarm system that best suits your home, considering factors such as the ease of installation, maintenance, and desired level of reliability. Ultimately, the key objective is to ensure a safe and secure fire alarm system that complies with the Scottish law and protects your household in case of an emergency.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the Scottish legal requirements for smoke alarms?

In Scotland, the legal requirements have changed recently, and all homes must have interlinked alarms. This means that a heat alarm must be installed in the kitchen, and smoke alarms must be placed in living rooms, circulation spaces such as hallways, and landings. Additionally, a carbon monoxide detector is required if there is a carbon-fuelled appliance in the property. All alarms must be mounted on the ceiling and interlinked, as per the new Scottish smoke and heat alarm laws.

Which types of alarms are recommended for use in Scotland?

There are different types of smoke alarms, such as ionisation and optical alarms, but it is important to choose a model that complies with British Standards and carries a ‘kitemark’. For heat alarms, it’s necessary to select one that is designed for use in kitchens. In any case, always consult the manufacturer’s guidance on the best alarm to choose for your specific property and the correct placement of each alarm.

Can I get a grant or financial assistance for upgrading smoke alarms?

There may be some financial assistance available, based on individual circumstances. Local councils could provide support for homeowners or private tenants through schemes such as the Care and Repair initiative. Contact your local council or visit their website to explore available options and check your eligibility.

How much does it typically cost to upgrade smoke alarms in Scotland?

The cost to upgrade smoke alarms depends on the type and number of alarms needed for your property, as well as the chosen brand and any installation costs. It’s important to consider the expense as an investment in safety, so choose products that comply with British Standards and carry a kitemark. A ballpark figure for upgrading your smoke alarms in Scotland could range from around £200 to £500, but individual circumstances will vary.

Are interlinked smoke and heat alarms mandatory in Scotland?

Yes, as of February 2022, all Scottish homes are required to have interlinked smoke and heat alarms. Interlinked alarms are designed to provide early warning by sounding all alarms in the home when one of them detects smoke, heat, or carbon monoxide, thus increasing the chances of a safer evacuation.

What are the consequences of not having compliant smoke alarms in Scotland?

Failure to have compliant smoke alarms in your property could result in potential legal consequences, particularly if you are a landlord. Moreover, non-compliant alarms could compromise the safety of occupants, reduce the chances of early detection of a fire, and increase the risk of injury or loss of life. Ensuring that your smoke alarms meet Scottish legal requirements is crucial for the safety and security of your home and its occupants.


  1. Fire and smoke alarms: changes to the law – gov.scot

  2. Make sure your home is fire safe – mygov.scot

  3. New Scottish smoke and heat alarm laws – everything you need to … – Which?

  4. The smoke alarm laws in Scotland have changed – Which?

  5. Make sure your home is fire safe – mygov.scot

  6. Make sure your home is fire safe – mygov.scot